Document Type : Original Article


1 University of Garmian

2 Sulaimani Polytechnic University

3 Agriculture Project management Department, Kalar Technical Institute, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Kalar, Garmain, Kurdistan Region, Iraq


This study was carried out at the experiment field, Kalar Technical Institute, Garmian Region in two growing seasons of 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 in order to evaluate the growth and yield potentials of barley under water stressed using hybrids as a source of wide range of genotypic variations. Therefore, five F2 barley hybrids (Hordeum vulgare L.) were screened for grain yield, biomass dry matter, plant height and harvest index under irrigated and drought conditions. Results showed that there was no effect of drought on grain yield (P>0.05) in 2017, while significantly reduced yield in 2018 and across-year mean (P-2 (3//14) under irrigated condition, and 267.8 (3//5) to 302.3 g m-2 (3//4) under unirrigated condition (P=0.001), biomass dry matter was ranged from 1099.1 (3//1) to 1370.5 g m-2 (3//14) under irrigated condition, and 892.6 (3//1) to 1153.9 g m-2 (3//14) under unirrigated condition (P=0.05), and harvest index were from 25.1 (3//14) to 28.0 (3//1) under irrigated conditions, and 25.9 (3//14) to 31.2 (3//1) under unirrigated conditions (P=0.04). Regression analysis, averaging over years, showed a positive relationship between grain yield and biomass under irrigated (R2=0.76; P=0.05), despite that, any positive relation was not found under unirrigated conditions (R2=0.43; P=0.23) due to post-anthesis drought stress. A strong relationship was also found between plant height and biomass dry matter under both irrigated (R2=0.89; P=0.02) and unirrigated (R2=0.97; P=0.003) conditions due to the high contribution of plant height in increasing plant biomass. It is concluded that genotypes had different response to drought due to their genetic diversity, and relatively low impact of water stress was appeared on growth and grain yield of barley in this semi-arid region compared to worldwide expected range of yield reduction.


  1. References

    1. Grando, S., von Bothmer, R. and Ceccarelli, S. Genetic diversity of barley: use of locally adapted germplasm to enhance yield and yield stability of barley in dry areas, CABI/FAO/IPRI, pp. 351-372 (2016)
    2. Lehmann, L.C., and von Bothmer, R. Hordeum spontaneum and landraces as a gene resource for barley breeding. In: “Cereal breeding related to integrated cereal production” Jorna, M.L. and Slootmaker L.A.J. (eds.). Pudoc, Wageningen, the Netherlands, pp. 190–194 (1988)
    3. Cai, K., Chen, X., Han, Z., Wu, X., Zhang, S., Li, Q., Nazir, M.M., Zhang, G. and Zeng, F. Screening of Worldwide Barley Collection for Drought Tolerance: The Assessment of Various Physiological Measures as the Selection Criteria. Front. Plant Sci. 11:1159., (2020)
    4. Ashoub, A., Beckhaus, T., Berberich, T., Karas, M. and Brüggemann, W. Comparative analysis of barley leaf proteome as affected by drought stress. Planta, 237, 771–781,, (2013)
    5. Bothmer, R., Sato, K., Komatsuda, T., Yasuda, S. and Fischbeck, G. Chapter 2 The domestication of cultivated barley. Developments in Plant Genetics and Breeding, 7, 9-27., (2003)
    6. Hassan, H., Mohammed, M., Mahmood, Y. Association between some grain related traits of barley under drought and irrigated conditions. Journal of Garmian University, 6 (SCPAS Conferance), pp. 76-83., (2019)
    7. Roghzai, Y.A.M., The physiological and genetic bases of drought tolerance in bread wheat and ancestral wheat species. PhD thesis submitted to the University of Nottingham, school biosciences, crop and plant sciences department, (2016)
    8. Passioura, J.B. Drought and drought tolerance. Plant Growth Regulation, 20(2), 79-83, (1996)
    9. Khajeh, H.M., Powell, A.A., Bingham, I.J. The interaction between salinity stress and seed Vigor during germination of soybean seed. Seed Sci. Technol, 1, 715-725, (2003)
    10.  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2013 – The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press., (2014)
    11. United Nations: Department of Economic and Social Affairs - Population Division, World Population Prospects 2019: Highlights. United Nations Publ., New York City, 2–3. (2019)
    12. Aspinall D., The effects of soil moisture stress on the growth of barley: II. Grain Growth, Aust. J. Agr. Res., 16 265–275, (1965)
    13.  Nevo, E., and Chen, G. Drought and salt tolerances in wild relatives for wheat and barley improvement. Plant Cell Environ. 33, 670–685., (2010)
    14. Walter, H. and Leith, H. Climadigram welt atlas. Jena, 4: 434, (1960)
    15. Aziz, S.N. Survey and classification of some soils from Kurdistan region. M.Sc. thesis submitted to the University of Sulaimani, college of agriculture, (2006)
    16. Mahmood, Y.A., Mohammed, M.S. and Hassan, H.N. A physiological Explanation of Drought Effect on Flag-Leaf Specific Weight and Chlorophyll Content of Barley, Iraqi Journal of Science, 60(12), pp. 2531-2539,,1, (2019)
    17. Mahmood, Y.A., Full Diallel Crosses in Two-rowed Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). M.Sc. thesis submitted to the University of Sulaimani, college of agriculture, (2010)
    18. Mahmood, Y.A. Drought effects on leaf canopy temperature and leaf senescence in barley, Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 51(6):1684-1693, (2020)
    19. VSN International, Genstat for Windows. 19th Edition. VSN International, Hemel Hempstead, UK, (2017)
    20. GraphPad Prism version 8.0.0 for Windows. Linear regression analysis was performed using graphPad Software, San Diego, California USA,, ( 2019)
    21. Fischer, R.A., Turner, N.C. and Kramer, P. (Eds.), Adaptation of plants to water and high temperature stress, Willey and Son, New York, pp. 323-340, (1980)         
    22. Monneveux, P., Reynolds, M.P., Trethowan, R., González-Santoyo, H., Peña, R.J., and Zapata, F. Relationship between grain yield and carbon isotope discrimination in bread wheat under four water regimes. European Journal of Agronomy, 22(2), 231-242, (2005)
    23. Kadam, N.N., Xiao, G., Melgar, R.J., Bahuguna, R.N., Quinones, C. and Tamilselvan, A. Chapter Three - Agronomic and physiological responses to high temperature, drought, and elevated CO2 interactions in cereals, Advances in Agronomy. Ed. Sparks, D. (Salt Lake City: Academic Press), 111–156., (2014)
    24. Bendig, J., Yu, K., Aasen, H., Bolten, A., Bennertz, S., Broscheit, J. and Bareth, G. Combining UAV-based plant height from crop surface models, visible, and near infrared vegetation indices for biomass monitoring in barley. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 39, 79-87, (2015)
    25. Slack, S., York, L.M., Roghazai, Y., Lynch, J., Bennett, M. and Foulkes, J. Wheat shovelomics II: Revealing relationships between root crown traits and crop growth. BioRxiv 280917,, (2018)
    26. Fischer, R.A. and Maurer, R. Drought Resistance in Spring Wheat Cultivars. I Grain Yield Responses. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 29, 897-912, (1978)
    27. Samarah, N.H., Alqudah, A.M., Amayreh, J.A., McAndrews, G.M. The effect of late-terminal drought stress on yield components of four barley cultivars.  J. Agron. Crop Sci. 195, 427–441., (2009)
    28. Barati, M., Majidi, M. M., Mirlohi, A., Pirnajmodini, F., and Sharifmoghaddam, N. Response of cultivated and wild barley germplasm to drought stress at different developmental stages. Crop Sci. 55 (6), 2668–2681., (2015)
    29. Serrago, R., Alzueta, I., Savin, R. and Slafer, G. Understanding grain yield responses to source–sink ratios during grain filling in wheat and barley under contrasting environments. Field Crops Research, 150:42-51., (2013)
    30. Innes, P., Hoogendoorn J., Blackwell, R.D. Effects of difference in date of early emergence and height on yield of winter Wheat. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 105:543-549, (1985)
    31.  Jouyban, A., Give, H.S., Noryan, M. Relationship between agronomic and morphological traits in barley varieties under drought stress condition. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 9 (9): 1507-1511, (2015)
    32. Mwadzingeni, L., Shimelis, H., Tesfay, S., and Tsilo, T. J. Screening of bread wheat genotypes for drought tolerance using phenotypic and proline analyses. Front. Plant Sci. 7, 1276., (2016)
    33. Zhao, J., Sun, H., Dai, H., Zhang, G., and Wu, F. Difference in response to drought stress among Tibet wild barley genotypes. Euphytica 172, 395–403., (2010)
    34. Szira, F., Bá lint, A.F., Börner, A., and Galiba, G. Evaluation of drought related traits and screening methods at different developmental stages in spring barley. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 194, 334–342., (2008).