Document Type : Original Article
University of Salahhadin- College of Science
The current study was conducted to identify and study the spatial and seasonal variations of diatoms in some sites in Shaqlawa district in Erbil province for the period from September 2021 to August 2022 and considered the first attempt to identifiy diatoms in the this sites and also considered as an intensive study of the various species of the diatoms under different environmental conditions. Eighteen sites were selected, of which twelve are in springs, six of which are along the stream, as well as use indices to evaluate the water quality, such as Shannon Wiener indicators (H), and Jaccard similarity indices (SJ), 57 species of diatoms were identified at eighteen sites, where central diatoms were of two species while pennales diatoms reached fifty-five species. Highest numbers of species recorded in springs include site 3 and the highest number of species recorded in springs was at site 3 and the lower number was identified at site 10. Diatoma hiemale, D. moniliformis, Fragilaria construnes, F. crotonesis, Ulnaria ulna, Cocconeis pediculus, Navicula radiosa, Gyrosigma acuminatum, Nitzschia dubia, Cymbella excisa, Gomphonema olivaceum, Surirella ovalis considered more dominant than others diatoms species. According to Shannon Wiener indicators (H) a great diversity obtained in site 3 and 18. While lower diversity was observed in sites 5, 10 and 17. According to seasons the maximum diversity was recorded in October-2021 and minimum diversity was calculated in January-2022. The highest similarity rate observed between Sites 3 and 4 was 29.0% while the lowest similarity rate observed between Sites 1 and 10 was 7.9%. In general, the similarity rate between the sites that are considered to be low.