Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Biology, College of Education, University of Garmian, Kalar, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq


According to reports, gallstones are solid clumps of various sizes that grow in the biliary tract, and gallbladder cholelithiasis has been linked to some risk factors. Some countries have a higher prevalence of gallbladder stones than others. The study included (81) female subjects aged 20 to 70 with symptomatic and asymptomatic gallstones and (80) without gallstones. The goals of the current study were to find the association of risk factors (age, diet, family history, body weight, marital status, occupation, smoking, physical inactivity, parity, and education levels) with gallstones and determine the liver function markers in gallstone patients. The SPSS program analyzed the data using the chi-square and unpaired t-tests; p < 0.05. was regarded as statistically significant. The highest ratio of gallstones at age (41-50) years representing 34.57% of the patients, and the lowest distribution was observed in the age groups between (20-30) and (51-60) years that represent (12.35%) of patients. The patients with unhealthy diets represent (83.95%) and (16.05 %) of healthy diets in enrolled patients. The gallstone patients with a family history of gallstone described (55.56%) and (44.44%) were without a family history. Overweight and obese represented (87.65%) of patients, and most of the cases were inactive groups, multiparous; illustrate, the difference between the cases and controls was statistically significant. Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), bilirubin, fasting blood glucose (FBG), waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), were significantly higher in cases than control. We concluded that women with high body weight, physically inactive, multiparous women, and less educated are more prone to develop Cholelithiasis and ALT, AST, BMI, waist circumference, SBP, and DBP associated with gallstone.


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