Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon in water from Dukan lake to main distributer stations in Sulaimani City, Iraq

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.


This study investigated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in Sulaimani City, Iraq. A longitudinal study was conducted from May 2022 to February 2023 to analyze PAH concentrations in water samples collected across three seasons using a GC-MC6890 Agilent gas chromatograph. Samples were collected from Dukan Lake, the City's primary water source, to the last distribution stations within the city. The study focused on four prevalent PAHs: naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, and pyrene. Their concentrations were meticulously compared against established drinking water standards to assess potential health risks. Additionally, the influence of seasons on PAH levels and the impact of PAH concentration on the water's pH were investigated.
The results revealed noteworthy seasonal variations in PAH concentrations, with higher levels observed during summer. Naphthalene concentrations were 20% higher in the summer compared to autumn/winter. Acenaphthylene and acenaphthene exhibited statistically significant differences in mean concentrations across the seasons (p-value < 0.0001), with naphthalene also showing significant differences between summer and autumn/winter. All PAH parameters exceeded standard limits in drinking water, posing potential risks to human health and aquatic organisms. Pyrene and other variables did not significantly affect pH (p-value = 0.9360).
These findings emphasize the need for continuous monitoring and treatment strategies to mitigate PAH contamination and ensure the safety of the City's drinking water supply. This study provides valuable baseline data for future efforts and management of drinking water resources in Sulaimani City.


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