Impact of Oak Seed Extract and Virkon on Saprolegnia Prevention in Common Carp

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



Fungal diseases pose a severe threat to freshwater fish, resulting in considerable losses and high mortality rates. The objective of this study was to assess how an extract from the acorn oak species (Quercus aegilops L) affects oxidative stress and the responses of common carp to their diet. Fish weighing sixty, seventy, and eighty grams were divided into eight groups and placed in 70-L tanks filled with water at a density of 3 g/L for the low-density group or ten g/L for the high-density group. Fish were given meals supplemented with 0.0, which acted as a control without exposure to zoospores. The following seven groups were exposed to Saprolegnia zoospores in different amounts of oak extract, namely 5%, 10%, and 15%. Moreover, three groups received treatment for 14 days using a combination of virkon and oak extract. Findings indicated a noteworthy decrease in the amounts of liver catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GTP), and Glutathione-s transferase (GTST) (U/I) in all fish groups relative to the control group. Alternatively, there was a notable elevation in the concentration of liver malondialdehyde (MDA) (µmol/L) in fish in contrast to the control group. Oak extract led to considerable increases in the level of liver MDA, whereas the control fish exhibited their lowest levels. Conclusion, incorporating oak extract into the diets of the fish groups led to significant decreases (P < 0.05) in liver levels of CAT, SOD, GTP, G6PD, and GTST. Simultaneously, there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the liver MDA level compared to the control group. The outcomes of this study reveal that the groups receiving oak and Virkon exhibited considerable modulation in liver enzymes compared to the groups fed only oak extract.


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