A Comprehensive Review of Recent Experimental and Numerical Investigations on the Impact of Openings in Steel Plate Shear Walls (SPSWs)

Document Type : Review Article


1 Civil Engineering Department, Tishk International University, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

2 Technical College of Engineering, Sulaimani Polytechnic University

3 Civil Engineering Department, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk, Iraq

4 Civil Engineering, Engineering College, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq

5 Department of Civil Engineering, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India



Structural buildings such as steel and reinforced concrete frames usually include doors and windows on the front or back facades, interior to the open areas. This; should be arranged to have an excellent correspondence for the location of shear walls, which are counted as essential elements for lateral stability. As a result, these architectural elements across the building assist in creating areas that are relatively less resistant to lateral loads. This review investigates the behavior of steel plate-framed shear walls with openings when subjected to lateral force exposure by thoroughly evaluating the composition of previous studies. To assess the impact of opening size, type, and layout on the overall performance of the lateral force-resisting system. There are studies explore on Steel Plate Shear Walls (SPSWs), both with and without openings. This study emphasizes the effect of openings on shear capacity. It investigates the effect of adding openings to steel plate shear walls on stiffness, ductility, damping ratio, and strength of the system. Key findings from the studies show that openings in SPSWs invariably reduce their lateral stiffness and strength. The amount of deduction in the strength of a structure depends on various factors such as the size, shape, and location of the opening. Additionally, the corners of the opening may experience stress concentrations which can cause tearing and reduced ductility. As a result, it disrupts the tension field action, which is the primary mechanism for SPSW energy dissipation. Most studies reviewed only the relatively thin infill plates and particular boundary conditions, which are highly important but have a gap in thick plates. Caution should be exercised when extrapolating due to thicker infill plates or different frame configurations. Considering a broader range of parameters, further research is necessary to establish comprehensive design guidelines for SPSWs with various opening configurations.


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